Linux most common script.

Bash Related Commands
Clear the terminal

clear / ctrl + l
Close the terminal

exit / ctrl + d
Reset the terminal

reset
Stop any program

ctrl + c
Sleep any program

ctrl + z
Check the history

ctrl + r / history
Check last 30 commands

history | tail -30
Autocomplete Filename or Folder name

Tab
Autocomplete command

Tab twice
Autocomplete command with options

Tab three times
System Related Commands
Dabian Based Systems
Update the system

sudo apt update

for some older packages

sudo apt-get update
Upgrade the system

sudo apt upgrade

for some older packages

sudo apt-get upgrade
Install a package

sudo apt install package_name

for some older packages

sudo apt-get install package_name
Remove a package

sudo apt remove package_name

for some older packages

sudo apt-get remove package_name
Remove a package and its dependencies

sudo apt autoremove package_name

for some older packages

sudo apt autoremove package_name
Search for a package

apt search package_name
List all installed packages

apt list –installed
List all available packages

apt list
List all available packages with version

apt list –all-versions
Arch Based Systems
Update the system

sudo pacman -Syyu
Install a package

sudo pacman -S package_name
Remove a package

sudo pacman -R package_name
Search for a package

pacman -Ss package_name
List all installed packages

pacman -Q
List all available packages

pacman -Ss
More to come
Check the internet is working

ping google.com
Check System and Kernel version

uname -a
Check System version

cat /etc/os-release
Check Kernel

uname -r
Check hostname

hostname
Check IP address

ip addr
Check IP address (short)

ip a
Check IP address (long)

ip address
See user logged in

who
See username

whoami
Short information of logged in user

users
See all users

cat /etc/passwd
See all groups

cat /etc/group
See all groups of a user

groups username
See all users of a group

getent group groupname
Reboot the system

sudo reboot
Shutdown the system

sudo shutdown -h now / sudo poweroff / sudo halt / sudo init 0 / sudo systemctl poweroff
Check the current date and time

date
Check the current user

whoami
Check the current user’s home directory

echo $HOME
Check the current user’s shell

echo $SHELL
Check the current user’s path / executable paths of system

echo $PATH
Check the current user’s environment variables

env
Check the current user’s environment variables with values

env | grep -i “variable_name”
Check the current user’s environment variables with values in a file

env > env.txt
Check the current user’s environment variables with values in a file with root access

sudo env > env.txt
See the top 10 processes

top
See the top 10 processes with root access and sorted by memory usage

sudo top -o %MEM
See the top 10 processes with root access and sorted by cpu usage

sudo top -o %CPU
See the top 10 processes with root access and sorted by cpu usage and memory usage

sudo top -o %CPU,%MEM
See the top 10 processes with root access and sorted by cpu usage and memory usage and show only the process id and the process name

sudo top -o %CPU,%MEM -p -c
See the current running processes

ps
See the current running processes in a tree format

pstree
Kill a specific process

killall ProcessName
See the system uptime

uptime
See the system uptime in a specific format

uptime -p
See the system monitor

htop
See the system monitor with root access and sorted by memory usage

sudo htop -o %MEM
See the system monitor with root access and sorted by cpu usage

sudo htop -o %CPU
See the system monitor with root access and sorted by cpu usage and memory usage

sudo htop -o %CPU,%MEM
See the system monitor with root access and sorted by cpu usage and memory usage and show only the process id and the process name

sudo htop -o %CPU,%MEM -p -c
See the system monitor with root access and sorted by cpu usage and memory usage and show only the process id and the process name and show the process tree

sudo htop -o %CPU,%MEM -p -c -t
Hardware Related Commands
See the system’s hardware information

sudo lshw
See the system’s hardware information in a specific format

sudo lshw -short
See the system’s hardware information in a specific format and show only the network devices

sudo lshw -short -C network
See the system’s hardware information in a specific format and show only the network devices and show the network devices in a tree format

sudo lshw -short -C network -class network -tree
Check the system’s memory usage

free -h
Check CPU information

lscpu
Check Memory information

sudo dmidecode -t memory
Check Disk information

sudo dmidecode -t memory
Check USB information

lsusb
Check PCI information

lspci
Check Partitions

lsblk
Check Partitions with root access

sudo lsblk
Check Partitions with root access and show only the partitions

sudo lsblk -p
Check Partitions with root access and show only the partitions and show the partitions in a tree format

sudo lsblk -p -t
Mount a partition

sudo mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
Unmount a partition

sudo umount /dev/sda1
Mount a partition with root access and show only the partitions and show the partitions in a tree format

sudo lsblk -p -t
Read Write Mount a partition

sudo mount -o rw /dev/sda1 /mnt
File / Directory Related Commands
Create a new directory

mkdir directory-name
Create a new file

touch file-name
Create multiple directories at a time

mkdir dir1 dir2 dir3 dir4 dir5
Create multiple files at a time

touch index.html style.css script.js
Delete a directory with all it’s child

rm -rf directory-name
Delete a file

rm filename
List down all the files and directories

ls
List down all the files and directories with all the details

ls -l
List down all the files and directories with all the details and hidden files

ls -la
List down all the files and directories with all the details and hidden files and sort by size

ls -lS
List down all the files and directories with all the details and hidden files and sort by time

ls -lt
List down all the files and directories with all the details and hidden files and sort by time and reverse

ls -ltr
List down all the files and directories with all the details and hidden files and sort by time and reverse and show only 10 files

ls -ltr | head -10
Open a file

cat filename
Open a file with line numbers

cat -n filename
Open a file with line numbers and show only 10 lines

cat -n filename | head -10
Open a file using vim

vim filename
Open a file using vim and show only 10 lines

vim +10 filename
Open a file using nano

nano filename
Open a file using nano and show only 10 lines

nano +10 filename
Open a file using gedit

gedit filename
Count the number of lines in a file

wc -l filename
Print the current working directory

pwd
Change the current working directory

cd directory-name
Change the current working directory to the home directory

cd ~
Change the current working directory to the parent directory

cd ..
Change the current working directory to the root directory

cd /
Copy a file

cp filename newfilename
Copy a file to a directory

cp filename directory-name
Copy a directory

cp -r directory-name newdirectory-name
Copy a directory to a directory

cp -r directory-name directory-name
Move a file

mv filename newfilename
Move a file to a directory

mv filename directory-name
Move a directory

mv -r directory-name newdirectory-name
Move a directory to a directory

mv -r directory-name directory-name
Rename a file

mv filename newfilename
Rename a directory

mv directory-name newdirectory-name
Create a symbolic link

ln -s filename linkname
Create a hard link

ln filename linkname
Create a hard link to a directory

ln -r directory-name linkname
Create a symbolic link to a directory

ln -sr directory-name linkname
Create a file with content

echo “Hello World” > filename
Append content to a file

echo “Hello World” >> filename
Create a file with content and open it using vim

echo “Hello World” > filename && vim filename
Create a file with content and open it using nano

echo “Hello World” > filename && nano filename
Create a file with content and open it using gedit

echo “Hello World” > filename && gedit filename
Create a file with content and open it using cat

echo “Hello World” > filename && cat filename
Create a .tar file

tar -cvf filename.tar directory-name
Create a .tar.gz file

tar -cvzf filename.tar.gz directory-name
Create a .zip file

zip -r filename.zip directory-name
Extract a .tar file

tar -xvf filename.tar
Extract a .tar.gz file

tar -xvzf filename.tar.gz
Extract a .zip file

unzip filename.zip
Find a file

find . -name filename

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